North Africa, Spain, The Roman Empire

Debod, a Ptolemaic temple in Madrid

The Templo de Debod was once located in the south of Egypt, in Lower Nubia, very close to the first cataracts and to the religious centre dedicated to the Goddess Isis, on Philae Island. This region, bordering with the powerful realm of Meroe, was the object of a dispute between the Egyptian and Meroite Governors up to the 1st century BCE, when Rome definitely established the frontier of Maharraqa. As of the 3rd century CE the region came under the control of the desert nomads and Roman control was lost.

Construction of the temple was started by Adijalamani, king of Meroe, at the beginning of the 2nd century BCE. He constructed a chapel dedicated to the Gods ’Amón of Debod’ and Isis. The chapel, decorated with reliefs, is one of the few monuments that makes reference to the life of this monarch. Subsequently, Ptolemy VI built new rooms around the original nucleus and gave it an appearance that bore more resemblance to its current appearance. His successors, Ptolemy VIII and Ptolemy XII ordered the construction of two side chapels, or naoi, also dedicated to Isis and Amón.

After Egypt was annexed to the Roman Empire, emperors Augustus, Tiberius and, possibly Adrian, decorated the entrance of the temple and added a special chapel, the mammisi. The temple was abandoned with the closure of the sanctuaries to Isis in the 6th Century. Debod in Madrid. Construction of the great Aswan Dam began in 1960. The huge lake that was created, more than 500 Kilometres in length, brought about the end of the archeological monuments and sites of the Lower Nubia, forever submerged under its waters.

At the request of Egypt and Sudan, UNESCO made an international plea for help to save the temples and monuments that were in danger. Four of the temples and monuments that were saved were donated by Egypt to the countries that contributed most to the salvage tasks. In 1968 Spain recieved the Templo de Debod in gratitude for its help in saving the temples of Abu Simbel. In 1970 the ashlars arrived in Madrid and were installed on the site of the former Cuartel de la Montaña

Sources and further reading:

The Song in the film is ’Principles My Ass (new version)’ by Hands Of Doom.

Journey Thru History, Perseus Records ® 2016

Africa, The Roman Empire, Tunisia

Antonine Baths

Carthage, North Africa.

Antoninus was roman emperor between AD 138 until his death in AD 161. He was adopted in his 50’s by Hadrian, who probably waited for his favorite – later emperor Marcus Aurelius – to be ready. He was given the name “Pius” for declaring Hadrian a God, as was customary, but the Senate hade previously said no. He expanded the Roman Empire to Scotland, otherwise maintaining a defensive military policy. Antoninus also cancelled many of Hadrian’s death sentences not yet enforced. He commissioned many building like these public baths, the largest in the Roman Empire.

The Baths of Antoninus Pius.

Journey Thru History, Perseus Records ® 2014



Mountain oasis known as Qasr el-Shams or ” Stronghold of the Sun” by the Arabs. In antiquity called Ad Speculum when the Romans fortified the upland site and communicated across the surrounding desert landscape – which spreads out at the foot of the mountains of the Djebel el Negueb – to other Roman outposts around using mirrors.

Scenes from the films Star Wars (1977) and The English Patient (1996) were shot here.